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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active.

The Origin

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders affecting children. Symptoms of ADHD include inattention (not being able to keep focus), hyperactivity (excess movement that is not fitting to the setting) and impulsivity (hasty acts that occur in the moment without thought). ADHD is considered a chronic and debilitating disorder and is known to impact the individual in many aspects of their life including academic and professional achievements, interpersonal relationships, and daily functioning.


ADHD can lead to poor self-esteem and social function in children when not appropriately treated. Adults with ADHD may experience poor self-worth, sensitivity towards criticism, and increased self-criticism possibly stemming from higher levels of criticism throughout life.


Many children may have difficulties sitting still, waiting their turn, paying attention, being fidgety, and acting impulsively. However, children who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD, differ in that their symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, organization, and/or inattention are noticeably greater than expected for their age or developmental level. These symptoms lead to significant suffering and cause problems at home, at school or work, and in relationships. The observed symptoms are not the result of an individual being defiant or not being able to understand tasks or instructions.

There are three main types of ADHD:

  • Predominantly inattentive presentation.

  • Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation.

  • Combined presentation.


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by Jacie Ruelas Corey

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